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General admission applies for outdoor exhibits.

History at HSMC

  • Overview

  • About Lois Green Carr

  • Maryland School Bibliography

  • 1934 Tercentennial Celebration

The first professional employee of Historic St. Mary’s City was historian Lois Green Carr. Beginning in 1967, she was given the task of creating a research program that would guide the museum’s development. To have ready access to the original documents, her office was established at the Maryland Hall of Records, with the support of Archivist Morris Radoff and subsequently Edward Papenfuse. Carr pioneered research into the nature of colonial Maryland, attracting other scholars and a group of exceptional graduate students. Together, they explored the historical records in new ways to answer never before asked questions about subjects such as demography, mortality, the economy, the nature of daily life, the beginnings of slavery, the experiences of women and indentured servants, religion, and the development of the courts and the legislature. For the first time, they utilized long neglected probate inventories, performed innovative statistical analyses, and were some of the earliest to employ computers in historical research.

Out of these robust efforts came doctoral dissertations, numerous books, and over 150 articles that changed our understanding of early Maryland and colonial America. This research was so consequential that Carr and her associates were referred to as “The Maryland School,” which emphasized collaborative and interdisciplinary scholarship that was atypical for colonial historians. Occasionally, they were even called “The Maryland Mafia” for their strong collaboration and powerful use of new evidence in forming and defending their findings. This interdisciplinary approach that Carr pioneered deeply influenced those who worked with her, continued to inform them in their subsequent research, and introduced new methods and perspectives into the field of American History. The publications listed here represent the work of the history office staff, associated scholars, and graduate students who worked with or were aided by Lois Green Carr. Their exploration of early America continues to the present day.

History at HSMC - ResearchHistory at HSMC
History at HSMC - ResearchLois Green Carr

Lois Green Carr: A Remarkable Scholar
By Henry M. Miller – May 2020

The person who has had the most profound intellectual influence on Historic St. Mary’s City is historian Lois Green Carr (1922–2015). She shaped the HSMC research program, played a major role in developing the museum’s interpretive programs, and in the process changed our understanding of early Maryland and the Chesapeake region. This is a brief biographical overview of a very consequential life.

History at HSMC - Research Lois Green Carr

Lois was born on March 7, 1922 in Holyoke, Massachusetts to Donald Ross Green and Constance McLaughlin Green. She was a third-generation historian. Her grandfather Andrew C. McLaughlin was a renowned constitutional scholar whose book A Constitutional History of the United States (1935) was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1936. Her mother Constance McLaughlin Green was also a very accomplished historian and she won the 1963 Pulitzer Prize for History with Washington, Village and Capital, 1800–1878 (1962). Lois told me that her first interest in history began when she was about three years old. She remembered asking her mother at age seven to explain how the Medieval Feudal System worked, an early hint of her brilliant mind. After graduating with a B.A. in history from Swarthmore College in 1943, Carr obtained her History M.A. from Radcliffe College in 1944. But in 1943, she was in the first class of Radcliffe women allowed to take classes at Harvard University. She began the Ph.D. program at Harvard in 1944 and completed classwork in 1947. But marriage, a child, relocations, and several jobs such as being editor at Alfred A. Knopf delayed academic progress.

Lois moved to Annapolis in 1954, and she joined the Hall of Records staff (now the Maryland State Archives) as a junior archivist in 1956. While there, she served as Assistant Editor of the Maryland Manual (1956–1960), and Editor of The Maryland Guide (1956–1964). She resumed her doctoral research in 1960, shifting her focus from New England to Maryland and persuaded Harvard’s renowned Bernard Bailyn to take her on as a student in 1961. Carr completed her Ph.D. in 1968 with County Government in Maryland, 24 years after she began the graduate program. This is a superb example of her persistence. Her dissertation also ranks among the largest ever submitted to Harvard University, at nearly 1100 pages. This is a superb example of her keen attention to detail and thoroughness. In October 1967, as she completed the final edits on her dissertation, Lois was hired by the newly established St. Mary’s City Commission to serve as its historian. Because the original colonial records vital for her research are mostly curated at the Archives in Annapolis, it was agreed that she would continue to work there, in an office provided by archivist Morris Radoff and later by Edward Papenfuse. Thus, Carr began a career with History St. Mary’s City that would span over four decades.

Over that time, Lois became internationally recognized as one of the leading social and economic historians of the Colonial Chesapeake. At St. Mary’s, in collaborated with Cary Carson and Garry Stone she developed an innovative interdisciplinary approach to exploring early Maryland. Carr investigated 17th-century life through documents, social historian Carson focused upon architectural history and Stone led the archaeological explorations. Lois had a remarkable openness to and curiosity about the insights other disciplines could provide in the quest to understand early America.

This curiosity is equally reflected in her documentary research. Very little was known about life in early Maryland and Lois wanted to change that. Her research covered a vast range of subjects including the tobacco economy, demography, women’s history, the evolving legal system, daily life, slavery, religion, inequality, the standard of living, opportunity for different groups, government, and among others. This was all part of a new academic trend known as social history, where the focus shifted from the elite to the regular person. This involved both social and economic history, with quantitative analysis used as a central tool in what was for a time called “the New History.”

In this effort, Carr was a pioneer and she was assisted by many exceptional graduate students, especially Russell Menard and Lorena Walsh. Together, they created new quantitative analysis methods for long neglected documents such as probate inventories and family wills. Land records were used to examine the growth of settlement, plantation sizes, and for clues to how Maryland’s first capital had been built. Lois co-authored and contributed to many books, articles, and papers, including Maryland’s Revolution of Government 1689–1692 with David Jordan (1974), Colonial Chesapeake Society as editor with Philip Morgan and Jean B. Russo (1988), and Robert Cole’s World: Agriculture & Society in Early Maryland with Russell Menard and Lorena Walsh (1993). One article entitled “The Planter’s Wife” was co-authored with the equally brilliant Lorena Walsh and published in 1977 in the prestigious William and Mary Quarterly. Readers in 1993 selected it as one of the 11 most influential articles published in that journal over the previous 50 years.

History at HSMC - ResearchHistory at HSMC

It is notable that so many of her publications are co-authored. While most historians tend to work individually, Carr always believed in the value of collaborative research. In a 1993 interview, she described the joy of working together on projects:

“…we all worked together to examine various aspects of colonial Chesapeake society. I think the entire experience was such a thrilling moment. We had so many people to discuss all the ideas with. The camaraderie created an absolutely basic and deeply satisfying professional experience that I will remember for years to come. Those scholars are scattered across the country now, but we still feel the bond from those years of working together so closely”. And the results were exciting because “We were creating a real society, real 17th-century Marylanders emerging from those records.”

Lois was also willing to share her findings with colleagues and students, even before these were published. Generosity was an-outstanding virtue of her nature and she shared laboriously produced data with many scholars. For example, significant portions of her work on probate inventories were skillfully employed by Lois’s friend and close colleague Gloria Main in her important book Tobacco Colony in 1982. Territoriality that is often found in the history profession is not how Lois thought scholars should work. In a 1993 interview, Lois told us why she felt this way: “I think it is immoral not to share as much as possible.” She also had an uncommon openness to what other fields of research, ranging from architecture and faunal analysis to economics and geography, could contribute. Her criticisms could be very strong, but always insightful, generous, and offered as constructive advice for enhancing the work. Her comments unfailingly improved an argument, helped avoid errors, and anyone who had a manuscript reviewed by her came away with deep gratitude. And when new evidence or a keener argument overcame her interpretation on a subject, Lois was invariably willing to admit she had been wrong, not a response always found among academics.

Lois’ keen mind, intellectual creativity, and enthusiasm attracted numerous young researchers to the study of colonial Maryland history. This group came to be known as the “Maryland School” of historiography for their quantitative approach and combination of economic and social history. They were also sometimes referred to as the “Maryland Mafia,” with Lois as its godmother. They explored legal records, estate inventories and demographic data to reveal colonial society and its people in new ways. One of the most novel elements of Lois’ approach was her openness to evidence. While historians tend to be almost exclusively document-focused, Lois saw architecture, archaeology and material culture as providing equally valuable insights and sought to integrate them into her research. She was always eager to learn of the latest discoveries and warmly encouraged the archaeologists in their work, even if the art of “reading the dirt” always remained a mystery to her. Such interdisciplinary study was quite rare for historians in the 1970s and it helped set St. Mary’s City apart.

Over the years, Lois assisted and advised dozens of graduate students, but she never felt comfortable in the classroom. Perhaps this is part of the reason she never accepted a university teaching post. Instead, her great professional passions were historical research and public history. When asked why she did not teach in a university, Lois responded

“I do teach. I teach at the Historic St. Mary’s City museum—through its exhibits and interpretations for visitors. I reach many more people than I ever would through a traditional classroom. It is simply thrilling work that I am eager to do every day.”

Lois saw all of St. Mary’s City as her classroom, where the public could learn about the past by experiencing it in new ways. She had a prominent role in every interpretation the museum has produced between 1970 and 2010, beginning with the very first exhibit that opened on the second floor of the1676 State House in 1971. These exhibits ranged from gallery displays in the visitor center and at St. John’s site and reconstructions like the Brick Chapel and the Print House to the training of actors in the first living history programs in the late 1970s. Of them all, she was most proud of her role in creating the Godiah Spray Tobacco Plantation exhibit, based directly on her research that was later published as Robert Cole’s World. As colleague John J. McCusker wrote

“As HSMC’s first historian, Carr undertook original research on a broader range of subjects than professional historians typically address. She believed that public history museums should offer interpretations adhering to the same high standards for quality and originality as leading academic institutions.”

When Lois started, there was little reliable information about St. Mary’s City but many legends. She wanted to provide accurate knowledge and one of her first tasks was to meticulously assemble detailed tract histories for every piece of land at St. Mary’s, as well as files on each building known to have stood in the city. This work created the foundation for all subsequent investigations at St. Mary’s. Every archaeological project has begun with these records, and future investigations will continue to do so for decades to come. Archaeological interpretation will always integrate Lois’ historical summaries at St. Mary’s City. Another of her many contributions was providing the key historical clues needed to identify the people discovered in the lead coffins at the Chapel site, members of the founding family of Maryland.

History at HSMC - Research Lois Green Carr

Although always modest about her own achievements, Lois was internationally recognized and highly admired by her colleagues. In 1995, she received the Cross-Botany, HSMC’s highest award for service to the institution. In 1996, she was one of the first two recipients of the Eisenberg Prize for Excellence in the Humanities, awarded by the Maryland Humanities Council. In 2000, Lois was inducted into the Maryland Women’s Hall of Fame. In all of this, she was supported by her gracious husband Jack Ladd Carr, who died in 2010.

We at HSMC will forever be indebted to the truly extraordinary contributions of Lois Green Carr and must work to honor her legacy and dreams by ensuring that HSMC continues its excellence in preservation, scholarship, and telling the important stories of Lord Baltimore’s colony to the world. Historian John McCusker provided a fine summation of Lois’s work in 2015:

“Her passion was to write and teach history for a broad public audience through museum programs rather than in an academic institution, but through her generous mentorship, Carr played a major role in shaping research, writing, teaching, and interpreting the history of the region…Today, many of the articles and books she helped produce remain essential reading for all scholars of early American history”.

Calvert scholar, public historian, and former HSMC Commissioner Dr. John Krugler, one of many colleagues that Lois advised and assisted over the years, wrote an equally insightful summary of Lois’s career:

“Lois was the intellectual founder [of HSMC], the creative driver of the research and the planning process. I think more than any other person, Lois defined the museum. In the course of doing that, she almost single-handedly made Chesapeake Studies a legitimate and intellectually exciting field…She was awesome and inspired others to be better than they thought they could be. No doubt about it, she was a giant! HSMC was the embodiment of her dreams.”

Maryland School Bibliography

Established by Lois Green Carr in 1967, the HSMC History Office engaged numerous scholars and graduate students in the exploration of a range of subjects and the development of new questions and methods of historical analysis. The list below includes the initial publications and the ongoing work of those historians who were a part of the “Maryland School” of historiography founded by Lois Green Carr, or were aided by her in their research.

Carr, Lois Green

1967 Prince George’s County Tax List 1733. In Calendar of Maryland State Papers I: The Black Books, Pp. 34-44. Genealogical Publishing Company.
1968 County Government in Maryland, 1689-1709. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of History, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
1972 Margaret Brent; Ann Mathews and Francis Dickinson; Anne Catherine Green, In Notable American Women, 1607-1950, Edited by Edward T. James and Janet Wilson James. 3 vols. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
1973 Ceramics from the John Hicks Site, 1723–1743: The St. Mary’s Town Land Community. In Ceramics in America, Ian M. G. Quimby, editor, pp. 75–102. University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville.
1973 Review, A Guide to the Artifacts of Colonial America, by Ivor Noel Hume. The American Historical Review 78: 471.
1974 The Metropolis of Maryland: A Comment on Town Development Along the Tobacco Coast. Maryland Historical Magazine 69:124–145.
1977 The Development of the Maryland Orphans Court, 1654-1715. In Law, Society and Politics in Early Maryland. Edited by Aubrey Land, Lois Green Carr and Edward C. Papenfuse. Pp. 41-52. Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore.
1978 The Foundations of Social Order: Local Government in Colonial Maryland. In Town and County: Essays on the Structure of Local Governments in the American Colonies, Bruce C. Daniels, editor, pp. 72–110. Wesleyan University Press, Middletown, CT.
1984 The First Expedition to Maryland. In A Relation of the successful Beginnings of the Lord Baltimore’s Plantation in Maryland. Pp. xxv-xxx. Maryland Hall of Records 350th Anniversary Documents Series No. 3. Annapolis.
1984 Sources of Political Stability and Upheaval in Seventeenth-Century Maryland. Maryland Historical Magazine 79: 44-70.
1984 Toleration in Maryland: Why It Ended. In Lectures in the History of Religious Toleration in Maryland. Baltimore.
1986 Immigration and Opportunity in Colonial Maryland: The British Experience, in Maryland Our Maryland, edited by Virginia Geiger, Pp. 153-170. (Lanham, MD., 1986), 153-170.
1987 County Government in Maryland, 1689-1709. Two Volumes. Garland Press. New York.
1987 Review, Women and Law of Property in Early America, by Marylynn Salmon. The Journal of Economic History 49: 267-268.
1987 Review, After the Revolution: The Smithsonian History of Everyday Life in the Eighteenth Century, by Barbara Clark Smith. The American Historical Review 92: 203.
1988 Economic Diversification in the Colonial Chesapeake: Somerset County, Maryland. In Colonial Chesapeake Society, Edited by Lois Green Carr, Philip Morgan and Jean B. Russo. Pp. 342-388. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
1988 Review, Holy Things and Profane: Anglican Parish Churches in Colonial Virginia, by Dell Upton. The American Historical Review 93: 494-495.
1989 Inheritance in the Colonial Chesapeake. In Woman in the Age of the American Revolution, Edited by Ronald Hoffman and Peter J. Albert. University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville.
1990 Review, Pursuits of Happiness: The Social Development of Early British Colonies and the Formation of American Culture, by Jack P. Greene. The Journal of Southern History 56: 511-512.
1992 Emigration and the Standard of Living: The Seventeenth-Century Chesapeake. Journal of Economic History 52: 469-489.
1992 Review, To Make America: Emigration in the Early Modern Period by Ida Altman and James Horn. The Journal of American History 79: 1131.-32.
1992 Review, Mistress of Riversdale: The Plantation Letters of Rosalie Sterr Calvert, 1795-1821 by Margaret Calcott. The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 116: 528-530.
1993 Rural Settlements in the Colonial Chesapeake, in Settlements in the Americas: Cross-Cultural Perspectives, edited by Ralph Bennett. University of Delaware Press, Newark.
2000 “Emigration and the Standard of Living: The Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake,” The Early Modern Atlantic Economy, edited by John J. McCusker and Kenneth Morgan, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
2001 Review, Princes of Ireland, Planters of Maryland: A Carroll Saga, 1500-1752, by Ronald Hoffman and Sally Mason. The Catholic Historical Review 87: 347-349.
2004 From Servant to Freeholder: Daniel Clocker’s Adventure. Maryland Historical Magazine 99: 287-312.

Carr, Lois Green and David W. Jordan

1974 Maryland’s Revolution of Government, 1689-1692. Cornell University Press, Ithica, NY.

Carr, Lois Green, J. Glenn Little, and Stephen Israel

1971 Salvage Archaeology of a Dwelling on the John Hicks Leasehold, 2 Volumes. Contract Archaeology. Alexandria, VA.

Carr, Lois Green and Russell R. Menard

1979 Immigration and Opportunity: The Freedman in Early Colonial Maryland. In The Chesapeake in the Seventeenth Century: Essays on Anglo-American Society, Thad Tate and David Ammerman, editors, pp. 206–242. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
1989 Land, Labor and Economies of Scale in Early Maryland: Some Limits to Growth in the Chesapeake System of Husbandry. Journal of Economic History 49: 407-418.
1999 Wealth and Welfare in Early Maryland: Evidence from St. Mary’s County. William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Series, 56: 95-120.

Carr, Lois Green, Philip D. Morgan, and Jean B. Russo

1988 Colonial Chesapeake Society. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.

Carr, Lois Green, and Edward C. Papenfuse, editors

1976 Maryland: A New Guide to the Old Line State. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore.

Carr, Lois Green and Lorena S. Walsh

1977 The Planter’s Wife: The Experiences of White Women in Seventeenth-Century Maryland. The William and Mary Quarterly 34:542–571.
1978 Changing Lifestyles in Colonial St. Mary’s County. The Regional Economic History Research Center Working Papers 1(3): 73-118.
1980 Inventories and the Analysis of Wealth and Consumption Patterns in St. Mary’s County, Maryland 1658–1777. Historical Methods 15:81–104.
1988 Economic Diversification and Labor Organization in the Chesapeake, 1650-1820. In Work and Labor in Early America, Edited by Stephen Innis, Pp. 144-188. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
1988 The Standard of Living in the Colonial Chesapeake. William and Mary Quarterly 3rd Series, 45: 135-159.
1988 The Transformation of Production on the Farm and In the Household in the Chesapeake, 1658-1820, Working Papers of the Social History Workshop, University of Minnesota.
1988 “Lifestyles and Standards of Living in the British Colonial Chesapeake” in Inventaires apres deces et vente de meubles, edited by M. Baulant, A. Schuurman, and P. Servais, Pp. XIVe-XIXe siècle. Apports a une histoire de la vie economique et quotidienne, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.
1993 The Planter’s Wife: The Experience of White Women in Seventeenth-Century Maryland. In In Search of Early America: The William and Mary Quarterly, 1943-1993, Pp. 183-208. Revised.
1994 Changing Lifestyles and Consumer Behavior in the Colonial Chesapeake. In Of Consuming Interests: The Style of Life in the Eighteenth Century, Edited by Cary Carson, Ronald Hoffman, and Peter J. Albert, Pp. 59–166. University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville.

Carr, Lois Green, Russell R. Menard And Louis Peddicord

1978 Maryland At the Beginning. Annapolis. State Archives. Reprinted 1991.

Carr, Lois Green, Russell R. Menard, and Lorena S. Walsh

1991 Robert Cole’s World: Agriculture and Society in Early Maryland. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.

Carr, Lois Green and Edward C. Papenfuse

1983 The Charter of Maryland, in A Declaration of the Lord Baltemore’s Plantation in Mary-Land, edited by Edward C. Papenfuse, Pp. vii-xxvi. The Maryland Hall of Records 350th Anniversary Document Series, No. 2, Annapolis, MD.

Clemens, Paul G. E.

1975 The Operation of an Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake Tobacco Plantation. Agricultural History 49: 517-531.
1975 From Tobacco to Grain: Economic Development on Maryland’s Eastern Shore, 1660-1750. Journal of Economic History 35: 250-259.
1976 The Rise of Liverpool, 1665-1750. The Economic History Review 29: 211-225.
1980 The Atlantic Economy and Colonial Maryland’s Eastern Shore. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.
1981 Of Cabbage and Kings: Reflections on the Lives and Fortunes of Seventeenth-Century Chesapeake Settlers and Eighteenth-Century Tobacco Merchants. Reviews in American History 9: 469-475.
1983 Review, White Servitude in Colonial America: An Economic Analysis, by David W. Galenson. The William and Marry Quarterly 40: 132-134.
1995 Review, Of Consuming Interests: The Style of Life in the Eighteenth Century, by Cary Carson, Ronald Hoffman, and Peter J. Albert. Reviews in American History 23: 574-581.
1999 Before Cotton and Other Than Sugar: How Tobacco and Rice Shaped the World of Eighteenth-Century Slaves in British North America. Reviews In American History 27: 1-7.
2001 Review, From British Peasants to Colonial American Farmers, by Allan Kulikoff. The American Historical Review 106: 1792-1793.
2005 The Consumer Culture of the Middle Atlantic, 1760-1820. The William and Mary Quarterly 62: 577-624.
2010 Review, Material Culture in Anglo-America: Regional Identity and Urbanity in the Tidewater, Lowcountry, and Caribbean, by David S. Shields. The Florida Historical Quarterly 86: 544-546.
2011 Reimagining the Political Economy of Early Virginia. The William and Mary Quarterly 68: 393-397.
2011 “When I Drink, I Think, And When I Think, I Drink”: The Delights of Consumption in the Early Modern Atlantic World. Reviews in American History 39-406-413.

Clemens, Paul G. E. and Jacob M. Price

1987 A Revolution in Scale of Overseas Trade: British Firms in the Chesapeake Trade, 1675-1775. The Journal of Economic History 47: 1-43.

Clemens, Paul G. E. and Peter O. Wacker

1995 Land Use in Early New Jersey: A Historical Geography. New Jersey Historical Society, Newark.

Day, Alan F.

1989 A Social Study of Lawyers in Maryland: 1660-1775. New York. Garland Publishing.

Galenson, David W. and Russell R. Menard

1980 Approaches to the Analysis of Economic Growth in Colonial British America. Historical Methods 13: 3-18.

Graham, Michael

1983 Lord Baltimore’s Pious Enterprise: Toleration and Community in Colonial Maryland, 1634-1724. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan. Ann Arbor.
1988 Meeting House and Chapel: Religion and Community in Seventeenth-Century Maryland, In Colonial Chesapeake Society, Edited by Lois Green Carr, Philip Morgan and Jean B. Russo, Pp. 242-274. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
1993 Popish Plots: Protestant Fears in Early Colonial Maryland, 1676-1689. Catholic Historical Review 79: 197-216.
1993 The Collapse of Equity: Catholic and Quaker Dissenters in Maryland, 1692-1720. Maryland Historical Magazine 88: 4-25.

Hardy, Beatriz Betancourt

1993 Papists in a Protestant Age: The Catholic Gentry and Community in Colonial Maryland, 1689-1776. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of History, University of Maryland. College Park.
1994 A Papist in a Protestant Age: The Case of Richard Bennett, 1667-1749. Journal of Southern History 60: 203-228.
1997 Roman Catholics, Not Papists: Catholic Identity in Maryland, 1689-1776. Maryland Historical Magazine 92: 139-181.

Harris, P. M. G.

1978 Integrating Interpretations of Local and Regionwide Change in the Study of Economic Development and Demographic Growth in the Colonial Chesapeake, 1630-1775. Regional Economic History Research Center, Working Papers 1: 35-72.
1982 Of Two Minds, Falsely Sundered: Faith and Reason, Duality and Complexity, “Art” and Science in Perry Miller and in Puritan New England. American Quarterly 34: 36-42.
1989 The Demographic Development of Colonial Philadelphia in Comparative Perspective. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 133: 262-304.
1996 Inflation and Deflation in In Early America, 1634-1860: Patterns of Change in the British American Economy. Social Science History 20: 496-505.
2001 The History of Human Populations: Forms of Growth and Decline. Westport, Connecticut.

Horn, James

1979 Servant Emigration to the Chesapeake in the Seventeenth Century. In The Chesapeake in the Seventeenth Century: Essays on Anglo-American Society and Politics. Edited by Thad W. Tate and David L. Ammerman. New York. W. W. Norton and Company. Pp. 51-95.
1988 Adapting to a New World: A Comparative Study of Local Society in England and Maryland, 1650-1700. In Colonial Chesapeake Society, Edited by Lois Green Carr, Philip Morgan and Jean B. Russo. Pp. 133-175. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
1994 Adapting to a New World: English Society in the Seventeenth-Century Chesapeake. University of North Carolina Press. Chapel Hill.

Jordan, David W.

1977 Maryland’s Privy Council, 1637-1715. In Law, Society and Politics in Early Maryland. Edited by Aubrey Land, Lois Green Carr and Edward C. Papenfuse. Pp. 65-87. Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore.
1979 Political Stability and the Emergence of a Native Elite in Maryland. In The Chesapeake in the Seventeenth Century: Essays on Anglo-American Society, Thad W. Tate and David L. Ammerman, editors, pp. 243–273. W. W. Norton and Company, New York, NY.
1982 “Gods Candle” with Government: Quakers and Politics in Early Maryland. The William and Mary Quarterly 39: 628-654.
1985 “The Miracle of the Age”: Maryland’s Experiment in Religious Toleration. Historian 47: 338-359.
1987 Foundations of Representative Government in Maryland 1632–1715. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
1990 Review, Colonial Chesapeake Society, Edited by Loise Green Carr, Philip Morgan and Jean B. Russo. The Journal of Southern History 325-327.
1995 Review, From Gentleman to Townsmen: The Gentry of Baltimore County, Maryland, 1660-1776 by Charles G. Steffen. The American Historical Review 100: 577-578.

Kessell, Elizabeth

1981 Germans on the Maryland Frontier: A Social History of Frederick County, Maryland, 1730-1800. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of History, Rice University. Houston.

Krugler, John D.

1973 Sir George Calvert’s Resignation as Secretary of State and the Founding of Maryland. Maryland Historical Magazine 68: 239-254.
1976 To Live Like Princes: A Short Treatise Sett Downe in a Letter Written by R.W. To His Worthy Friend C.J.R. concerning the Plantation Now Erecting Under the Right Honorqble Lord Baltemore in Maryland. Enoch Pratt Library. Baltimore.
1977 “Our Trusty and Well beloved Councillor”: The Parliamentary Career of Sir George Calvert, 1609-1624. Maryland Historical Magazine 72: 470-491.
1978 “The Face of a Protestant and the Heart of a Papist”: A Reexamination of Sir George Calvert’s Conversion to Roman Catholicism. Journal of Church and State 20: 507-531.
1979 Lord Baltimore, Roman Catholics and Toleration: Religious Policy in Maryland During the Early Catholic Years, 1634-1649. Catholic Historical Review 65: 49-75.
1981 The Calvert Family, Catholicism, ad Court Politics in Early Seventeenth-Century England. Historian 43: 378-392.
1984 ‘With promise of Liberty in Religion’: The Catholic Lords Baltimore and Toleration in Seventeenth-Century Maryland, 1634-1692. Maryland Historical Magazine 79:21-43.
1991 Behind the Public Presentation: Research and Scholarship at Living History Museums of Early America. William and Mary Quarterly 48: 347-388.
2004 English and Catholic: The Lords Baltimore in the Seventeenth Century. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.
2004 The Calvert Vision: A New Model for State-Church Relations. Maryland Historical Magazine 99: 269-286.
2004 An “Ungracious Silence”: Historians and the Calvert Vision. Maryland Historical Magazine 99: 374-388.

Krugler, John D. and Timothy B. Riordan

1991 “Scandalous and offensive to the Government”: The ‘Popish Chapel’ and St. Mary’s City, Maryland and the Society of Jesus 1634-1705. Mid-America: A Historical Review 73: 193-199.

Kulikoff, Allan

1977 The Beginnings of the Afro-American Family in Maryland. In Law, Society and Politics in Early Maryland. Edited by Aubrey Land, Lois Green Carr and Edward C. Papenfuse. Pp. 171-196. Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore.
1977 A ‘Prolific’ People: Black Population Growth in the Chesapeake Colonies, 1700-1790. Southern Studies 16: 391-428.
1979 The Economic Growth of the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake Colonies. Journal of Economic History 39: 275-288.
1979 The Colonial Chesapeake: Seedbed of Antebellum Southern Culture. Journal of Southern History 45: 513-540.
1986 Tobacco and Slaves: The development of Southern Cultures in the Chesapeake, 1680-1800. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
1989 The Transition to Capitalism in Rural America. William and Mary Quarterly 3rd Series, 45: 120-144.
1993 Household and Market: Toward a Synthesis of American Agrarian History. William and Mary Quarterly 50: 342-355.
2000 From British Peasants to Colonial American Farmers. University of North Carolina Press. Chapel Hill.

Land, Aubrey C., Lois Green Carr and Edward C. Papenfuse, editors

1977 Law, Society and Politics in Early Maryland. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Levy, Daniel S.

1987 The Life Expectancies of Colonial Maryland Legislators. Historical Methods 20: 17-27.

Main, Gloria L

1974 Personal Wealth in Colonial America: Explorations in the Use of Probate Records from Maryland and Massachusetts, 1650-1720. The Journal of Economic History 34: 289-294.
1974 The Correction of Biases in Colonial American Probate Records. Historical Methods Newsletter 8: 10-28.
1974 Measuring Wealth and Welfare: Explorations in the Use of Probate Records from Colonial Maryland and Massachusetts. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of History, Columbia University, New York.
1975 Probate Records as a Source for Early American History. William and Mary Quarterly 3rd Series, 32: 88-99.
1977 Inequality in Early America: he Evidence from Probate Records from Massachusetts and Maryland. Journal of Interdisciplinary Research. 7: 559-581.
1982 Tobacco Colony: Life in Early Maryland, 1650–1720. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
1983 The Standard of Living in Colonial Massachusetts. The Journal of Economic History 43: 101-108.
1988 The Standard of Living in Southern New England, 1640-1773. With Jackson Turner Main. The William and Mary Quarterly 45: 124-134.
1991 An Inquiry into When and Why Women Learned to Write in Colonial New England. Journal of Social History 24: 579-589.
1994 Gender, Work and Wages in Colonial New England. The William and Mary Quarterly 51: 39-66.
1996 Naming Children in Early New England. The Journal of Interdisciplinary Research 27: 1-27. 121-150.
1999 The Red Queen in New England? The William and Mary Quarterly 56: 121-150.
2001 Peoples of a Spacious Land: Families and Culture in Colonial New England. Harvard University Press. Cambridge.
2002 Many Things Forgotten: The Use of Probate Records in “Arming America”. The William and Mary Quarterly 59: 211-216.
2006 Rocking the Cradle: Downsizing the New England Family. The Journal of Interdisciplinary Research 37: 35-58.
2012 Women on the Edge: Life at Street Level in the Early Republic. The Journal of the Early Republic 32: 331-349.

Menard, Russell R.

1973 Farm Price of Maryland Tobacco, 1659–1710. Maryland Historical Magazine 68(1):80–85.
1973 From Servant to Freeholder: Status, Mobility and Property in Seventeenth-Century Maryland. The William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Series 30: 37-64.
1975 Economy and Society in Early Colonial Maryland. Doctoral dissertation, Department of History, University of Iowa. University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, MI.
1975 The Maryland Slave Population, 1658 to 1730: A Demographic Profile of Blacks in Four Counties. The William and Mary Quarterly 32: 29-54.
1976 A Note on Chesapeake Tobacco Prices, 1618-1660. Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 84: 401-420.
1977 From Servants to Slaves: The Transformation of the Chesapeake Labor System. Southern Studies 16:355–390.
1977 Immigrants and Their Increase: The Process of Population Growth in Early Colonial Maryland. In Law, Society and Politics in Early Maryland. Edited by Aubrey Land, Lois Green Carr and Edward C. Papenfuse. Pp. 88-110. Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore.
1980 Five Maryland Censuses, 1700-1712: A Note on the Quality of the Quantities. The William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Series 37: 616-626.
1980 The Tobacco Industry in the Chesapeake Colonies, 1617-1730: An Interpretation. Research in Economic History. 5 109-177.
1981 The Growth of Population in the Chesapeake Colonies: A Comment. Explorations in Economic History 18: 399-410.
1981 Maryland’s ‘Time of Troubles’: Sources of Political Disorder in Early St. Mary’s. Maryland Historical Magazine 76: 124-140.
1982 Review, Colonial Maryland, A History, by Aubrey C. Land. The Journal of American History 68: 914-915.
1984 Population, Economy, and Society in Seventeenth-Century Maryland. Maryland Historical Magazine 79(1):71–92.
1985 Economy and Society in Early Maryland. Garland Publishing, New York.
1988 British Migration to the Chesapeake Colonies in the Seventeenth Century. In Colonial Chesapeake Society, Edited by Lois Green Carr, Philip Morgan and Jean B. Russo. Pp. 99-132. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
1989 Was There a “Middle Colony Demographic Regime”? Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 133: 215-218.
1989 Review, Pursuits of Happiness: The Social Development of Early Modern British Colonies and the Foundation of American Culture by Jack C. Greene. The Journal of American History 76: 910-911.
1993 Whatever Happened to Early American Population History? William and Mary Quarterly 3rd Series, 50: 356-366.
2000 New Directions in the Study of Slavery. Journal of American Ethnic History 19: 82-84.
2006 Sweet Negotiations: Sugar, Slavery, and Plantation Agriculture in Early Barbados. University of Virginia Press, Charlottesville.
2007 Plantation Empire: How Sugar and Tobacco Planters Built Their Industries and Raised an Empire. Agricultural History 81: 309-332.
2007 Review, The Plundering Time: Maryland during the English Civil Wars, 1645-1646, by Timothy B. Riordan. The Catholic Historical Review 93: 447.
2012 Review, Making Tobacco Bright: Creating an American Commodity, 1617-1937. The Journal of American History 99: 963-964.
2013 Making a “Popular Slave Society” in Colonial British America. The Journal of Interdisciplinary History 43: 377-395.

Menard, Russell R. and Lois Green Carr

1982 The Lords Baltimore and the Colonization of Maryland. In Early Maryland and the Wider World, Edited by David Quinn, Pp. 167-215. Wayne State University Press, Detroit.

Menard, Russell R., Lois Green Carr, and Lorena S. Walsh

1983 A Small Planter’s Profits: The Cole Estate and the Growth of the Early Chesapeake Economy. The William and Mary Quarterly 3rd Series,40: 171-196.

Menard, Russell R., P.M.G. Harris and Lois Green Carr

1974 Opportunity and Inequality: The Distribution of Wealth on the Lower Western Shore of Maryland, 1658-1705. Maryland Historical Magazine 69: 169-185.

Menard, Russell R., Ronald Hoffman, John J. McCusker, and Peter J. Albert

1988 The Economy of Early America: The Revolutionary Period, 1763-1790. University of Virginia Press. Charlottesville.

Menard, Russell R. and Lorena S. Walsh

1981 The Demography of Somerset County, Maryland: A Progress Report. Newberry Papers in Family and Community History 81.

Meyers, Debra A.

1997 Religion, Women and the Family in Maryland, 1634-1713. Ph.D, Dissertation, Department of History, University of Rochester, NY.

McCusker, John J.

1971 The Current Value of English Exports, 1697-1800. The William and Mary Quarterly 28: 607-628.
1972 Sources of Investment Capital in the Colonial Philadelphia Shipping Industry. The Journal of Economic History 32: 146-157.
1973 Weights and Measures in the Colonial Sugar Trade: The Gallon and the Pound and Their International Equivalents. The William and Mary Quarterly 30: 599-624.
1978 Money and Exchange in Europe and America, 1600-1775: A Handbook. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
1984 New Guides to Primary Sources on the History of British North America. The William and Mary Quarterly 41: 277-295.
1988 Toward a History of the Standard of Living in British North America: A Comment. The William and Mary Quarterly 45: 167-170.
1989 Rum and the American Revolution: The Rum Trade and the Balance of Payment in the Thirteen Continental Colonies. Garland Publishing. New York.
1992 How Much is That in Real Money? A Historical Price Index for Use as a Deflator of Money Values in the Economy of the United States. American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, MA.
1997 Essays in the Economic History of the Atlantic World. Routledge Studies in International Economic and Social History. Routledge, London and New York.
1999 Measuring Colonial Gross Domestic Product: An Introduction. The William and Mary Quarterly 56: 3-8.
2005 The Demise of Distance: The Business Press and the Origins of the Information Revolution in the Early Atlantic World. The American Historical Review 110: 295-321.

McCusker, John J. and Russell R. Menard

1985 The Economy of British America, 1607-1789. University of North Carolina Press. Chapel Hill.

McCusker, John J. and Kenneth Morgan

2000 The Early Modern Atlantic Economy. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Norton, Mary Beth

1996 Founding Mothers and Fathers: Gendered Power and the Forming of American Society. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

Papenfuse, Edward C., Alan F. Day, David Jordan, and Gregory Stiverson, editors

1985 A Bibliographic Dictionary of the Maryland Legislature, 1635-1789. Two Volumes. Johns Hopkins University Press and the Maryland State Archives.

Pyne, Tricia Terese

1995 The Maryland Catholic Community, 1690-1775: A Study in Culture, Region, and Church. Ph.D. Dissertation. Department of History, Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C.

Quinn, David C., editor

1982 Early Maryland in a Wider World. Detroit, Wayne State University Press.

Rice, James D.

1994 Crime and Punishment in Frederick County and Maryland, 1748-1837: A Study of Culture, Society and Law. Ph.D. Dissertation. Department of History, University of Maryland, College Park.
1995 Old Appalachia’s Path to Interdependence: Economic Development and the Creation of Community in Western Maryland, 1730-1850. Appalachian Journal 22: 348-374.
1996 The Criminal Trial Before and After Lawyers: Attorneys, Law and Culture in Maryland Jury Trials, 1681-1837. The American Journal of Legal History 40: 455-475.
2009 Nature & History in the Potomac Country: From Hunter Gatherers to the Age of Jefferson. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore.
2012 Tales from a Revolution: Bacon’s Rebellion and the Transformation of Early America. Oxford University Press. New York.
2014 Bacon’s Rebellion in Indian Country. The Journal of American History 101: 726-750.
2018 Early American Environmental Histories. The William and Mary Quarterly 75: 401-432.

Riordan, Timothy B.

2004 The Plundering Time: Maryland in the English Civil War, 1645–1646. Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore.

Russo, Jean Burrell

1983 Free Workers in a Plantation Economy: Talbot County, Maryland, 1690-1757. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of History, Johns Hopkins University. Baltimore.
1988 Self-Sufficiency and Local Exchange: Free Craftsmen in the Rural Chesapeake Economy. In Colonial Chesapeake Society, Edited by Lois Green Carr, Philip D. Morgan, and Jean B. Russo, Pp. 389-432. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
1989 Free Workers in a Plantation Economy, Talbot County, Maryland, 1690-1759, Garland Publishing, New York.
1992 A Model Planter: Edward Lloyd IV of Maryland, 1770-1796. William and Mary Quarterly 3rd Series, 49: 62-88.
1992 Review, Race and Class in Colonial Virginia: Indians, Englishmen, and Africans on the Eastern Shore During the Seventeenth-Century, by Douglas Deal. The William and Mary Quarterly 51: 132-134.

Russo, Jean B. and J. Elliott Russ

2012 Planting an Empire: The Early Chesapeake in British North America. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, MD.

Smith, Billy G.

1980 Struggles of “Lower Sort” in Late Eighteenth-Century Philadelphia. Regional Economic History Research Center, Working Papers, 3: 1-30.
1981 The Material Lives of Laboring Philadelphians. William and Mary Quarterly 38: 163-202.
1984 Inequality in Late Colonial Philadelphia: A Note on its Nature and Growth. William and Mary Quarterly 41: 629-645.
1988 Toward a History of the Standard of Living in British North America: A Comment. William and Mary Quarterly 63: 211-220.
1988 Poverty and Economic Marginalization in the Eighteenth Century. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 132: 85-118.
1989 The Family Lives of Laboring Philadelphians During the Late Eighteenth Century. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 133: 328-332.
2005 Deference in Early America: Introduction. Early American Studies 3: 227-231.
2013 Ship of Death: A Voyage that Changed the Atlantic World. Yale University Press. New Haven, CT.

Steffen, Charles G.

1984 The Mechanics of Baltimore: Workers and Politics in the Age of Revolution, 1763-1812. University of Illinois Press, Urbana.
1987 Gentry and Bourgeois: Patterns of Merchant Investment in Baltimore County, Maryland, 1658-1776. Journal of Society History 20: 531-548.
1989 The Rise of the Independent Merchant in the Chesapeake: Baltimore County, 1660-1769. The Journal of American History 76: 9-33.
1993 From Gentlemen to Townsmen: The Gentry of Baltimore County, Maryland, 1660-1776. University Press of Kentucky, Lexington.

Stone, Garry Wheeler

1987 Manorial Maryland. Maryland Historical Magazine 82: 3-36.

Walsh, Lorena S.

1977 Charles County, Maryland, 1658–1705: A Study of Chesapeake Social and Political Structure. Doctoral dissertation, Department of History, Michigan State University. University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, MI.
1977 Servitude and Opportunity in Charles County, Maryland. In Law, Society and Politics in Early Maryland. Edited by Aubrey Land, Lois Green Carr and Edward C. Papenfuse.. Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore.
1977 Review, The Population of the British Colonies in America before 1776: A Survey of Census Data, by Robert V. Wells. The Journal of American History 64: 128-129.
1979 “Till Death Us Do Part”: Marriage and Family in Seventeenth-Century Maryland. In The Chesapeake in the Seventeenth Century: Essays on Anglo-American Society, Thad Tate and David Ammerman, editors, pp. 126-152. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
1981 The Historian as Census Taker: Individual Reconstitution and the Reconstruction of Censuses for a Colonial Chesapeake County. William and Mary Quarterly 3rd Series, 38: 242-260.
1981 White Servitude and the Growth of Black Slavery in Colonial America: Discussion. Journal of Economic History 41: 48-49.
1981 Review, “Myne Owne Ground”: Race and Freedom on Virginia’s Eastern Shore, 1640-1676, by T. H. Breen. William and Mary Quarterly 38: 315-318.
1982 Review, Community Leadership in Maryland, 1790-1840, by Whitman Ridgway. The Journal of Interdisciplinary History 12: 544-546.
1983 Urban Amenities and Rural Sufficiency: Living Standards and Consumer Behavior in the Colonial Chesapeake, 1643-1777. Journal of Economic History 43: 109-117.
1985 Land, Landlord, and Leaseholder: Estate Management and Tenant Fortunes in Southern Maryland, 1642–1820. Agricultural History 59:373–396.
1985 The Experience and Status of Women in the Chesapeake, 1750-1773. In The Web of Southern Relations, edited by Walter J. Fraser Jr., R. Frank Saunders, Jr., and Jon L. Wakelyn. Pp. 1-18. University of Georgia Press. Athens.
1986 The Development of Local Power Structures: Maryland’s Lower Western Shore in the Early Colonial Period. In Power and Status: Officeholding in the Colonial America. Edited by Bruce C. Daniels, Pp. 53-91. Middletown, CT.
1986 Women’s History and History Museums: An Exhibit Review. Winterthur Portfolio 21: 65-69.
1987 “Staying Put or Getting Out”: Findings for Charles County, Maryland 1650-1720. William and Mary Quarterly 3rd Series, 44: 89-103.
1988 Community Networks in the Early Chesapeake. In Colonial Chesapeake Society, Edited by Lois Green Carr, Philip D. Morgan, and Jean B. Russo, pp. 200–241. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
1988 Questions and Sources for Exploring the Standard of Living. William and Mary Quarterly 45: 116-123.
1989 Plantation Management in the Chesapeake, 1620-1820. Journal of Economic History 49: 393-406.
1992 Review, Fevers, Agues, and Cures: Medical Life in Old Virginia, by Todd L. Savitt. The Journal of American History 79: 193-197.
1992 Review, The Formation of Society on Virginia’s Eastern Shore, 1615-1655, by Jane R. Perry. The Journal of Interdisciplinary History 22: 526-529.
1993 Slave Life, Slave Society, and Tobacco Production in the Tidewater Chesapeake. In Cultivation and Culture: Labor and the Shaping of Slave Life in the Americas. Edited by Ira Berlin and Philip Morgan, University of Virginia Press, Charlottesville.
1997 From Calabar to Carter’s Grove: The History of a Virginia Slav Community. University of Virginia Press, Charlottesville.
1999 Summing the Parts: Implications for Estimating Chesapeake Output and Income Subregionally. William and Mary Quarterly 3rd Series, 56: 53-94.
1999 Feeding the Eighteenth- Century Town Folk; or, Whence the Beef? Agricultural History 73: 267-280.
2000 Provisioning Tidewater Towns. Explorations in Early American Culture. 4: 46-80.
2001 The Chesapeake Slave Trade: Regional Patterns, African Origins, and Some Implications. William and Mary Quarterly. XXXX
2001 Land Use, Settlement Patterns and the Impact of European Agriculture, 1620-1820. In Discovering the Chesapeake: The History of an Ecosystem. Edited by Philip D. Curtin, Grace S. Brush and George W. Fisher, Pp. 220-248. Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore.
2002 The Differential Cultural Impact of Free and Coerced Migration to Colonial America. In Coerced and Free Migration: Global Perspectives. Edited by David Eltis, Pp. 117-151. Stanford, California.
2003 The Transatlantic Slave Trade and Colonial Chesapeake Slavery. Organization of American Historians Magazine 17(3): 11-15.
2003 Review, Black Rice: The African Origin of Rice Cultivation in the Americas, by Judith A. Carney. The American Historical Review 108: 157-158.
2004 Mercantile Strategies, Credit Networks and Labor Supply in the Colonial Chesapeake in Trans-Atlantic Perspective. In Slavery in the Development of the Americas, Edited by David Eltis, Frank D, Lewis, and Kenneth L. Sokoloff, Pp. 89-119. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
2005 The Role of Aristocratic Management Strategies in the Economic Development of the British North American Chesapeake. In European Aristocracies and Colonial Elites: Patrimonial Management Strategies and Economic Development, 15th-18th Centuries. Edited by Paul Janssens and Bartolome Yun-Casalilla, Pp. 199-211. Aldershot Press, Hampshire.
2005 Review, Foul Means: The Formation of Slave Society in Virginia, 1660-1740, by Anthony S. Parent. The Journal of Southern History 71: 138-140.
2007 Liverpool’s Slave Trade to the Colonial Chesapeake: Slaving on the Periphery. In Liverpool and the Transatlantic Slave Trade. Edited by David Richardson, Suzanne Schwartz and Anthony Tibbles, Pp. 98-117. University of Liverpool Press, Liverpool.
2007 Review, In the Name of the Father: Washington’s Legacy, Slavery, and the Making of a Nation, by François Fustenberg. Journal of the Early Republic 27 352-355.
2008 Review, Irons in the Fire: The Business History of the Tayloe Family and Virginia Gentry, 1700-1860, by Laura Croghan Kanoie. The American Historical Review 113: 1158.
2009 Review, The Dress of the People: Everyday Fashion in Eighteenth-Century England, John Styles. The Economic History Review by 62: 218-219.
2010 Motives of Honor, Pleasure, & Profit: Plantation Management in the Colonial Chesapeake, 1607–1763. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.
2011 Boom and Bust Cycles in Chesapeake History. The William and Mary Quarterly 3rd Series 68: 387-392.
2012 Review, Death in the New World: Cross-Cultural Encounters, 1492-1800, by Erik R. Seeman. The William and Mary Quarterly 69: 410-413.

Walsh, Lorena S. and Russell R. Menard

1974 Death in the Chesapeake: Two Life Tables for Men in Early Colonial Maryland. Maryland Historical Magazine 69(2):211–227.

Walsh, Lorena, Cary Carson, Joanne Bowen, Willie Graham, and Martha McCartney

2008 New World, Real World: Improvising English Culture in Seventeenth-Century Virginia. The Journal of Southern History 74: 31-88.

Celebrating our Past Celebrations

The 1934 “Pageant” in St. Mary’s City

In 1934, Maryland threw itself a massive birthday party. To celebrate the 300th anniversary of the founding of the Maryland a series of commemorations took place over two years.

The first of these occurred in England at Cowes on the Isle of Wight where the colonists began their trip to the New World on St. Cecilia’s Day, November 22nd 1633. This event was “simulcast” in the US with a special commemoration at the War Memorial in Baltimore, the placing of a plaque at Cowes, and a presidential radio address from Franklin D. Roosevelt.

The second commemoration occurred at St. Clement’s Island on March 25, 1934 (Maryland Day) and included the installation of the large concrete cross that still stands today, an outdoor Catholic mass, and a range of political and patriotic orations. The grand finale of this season of celebrations was on June 15th and 16th in St. Mary’s City.

The Tercentennial Celebration

Celebrating our Past Celebrations: The 1934 “Pageant” at St. Mary’s City

When Maryland celebrated the three hundredth anniversary in 1934, it was not the first celebration of the past at St. Mary’s City. The Georgetown University Philodomic Society ventured to St. Mary’s in 1852, the Calvert monument was erected in 1890, and a celebration of the 275th anniversary was held in 1909.